This book stands at the crossroads of the history of modern architecture in Europe, North-America and Asia, and the history of modern Japan. In the form of a case study, it deals with the life and work of Austro-Hungarian born Czech architect Antonin Raymond (1888-1976), in interwar Japan. The purpose of this study was to define the design process through which this Western architect carried out a synthesis between some of the most iconic forms of 1920s and 1930s modernist architecture, and Japanese vernacular residential architecture inherited from a long tradition of space conception and wooden construction. The book is organised in three parts. Starting with a biographical account of the architect’s early life, the first part deals with the educational and professional journey that led Raymond from his native Bohemia to Japan, via the United States. The second part explores the circumstances of his establishment as an independent architect in Japan. I examine how he put together a team and acquired the theoretical and technical means that were necessary to implement his aims as a professional and modern architect working in the context of the 1920s Japan. The third part presents a selection of houses designed and built between 1921 and 1938 for elite members of Tokyo’s Japanese and international community, both in the capital and its surrounding resort locations. The detailed architectural analysis of these works illustrates the various stages and dimensions of Raymond’s design process and provides insight into his own proposal for an architecture encompassing both universal and local dimensions. Through the subject of architecture and creation, this study explores a number of issues and challenges brought by the unprecedented modernisation process that Japan underwent during the first half of the 20th century.